Monday, October 21, 2013

Ask The Judge | 10/21/2013

Questions About Dressage

With Amy McElroy

Amy McElroy is a USEF R judge, qualified to officiate at any USEF recognized show at all national dressage levels. She rides, trains and teaches at Fairlane Farm in Aiken and judges about a dozen dressage shows and events each year. In her popular Ask the Judge column, she answers readers' questions about dressage.

Dear Amy,

I was recently at a dressage show and I saw a Training Level Rider test. I am interested in entering this class, but I would like to know what differences there would be between this test and a traditional Training Level test?

                                                                                       -Learning Every Day

Dear Learning,

In 2013, the United States Equestrian Federation designed three additional dressage tests. These are known as the Rider Tests. They are offered at Training, First and Second Levels: one test for each level.

The purpose of the 2013 Training Level Rider Test, according to the USEF is:

"To confirm that the rider sits in the correct posture an alignment an shows correct mechanics in walk, rising trot and canter. The seat is sufficiently independent for the rider to maintain a steady, elastic rein contact and encourage the horse to stretch into the contact. The horse is ridden actively forward showing impulsion and balance required for the level, bends equally to the left and right sides on turns and circles, and makes smooth, willing transitions."

There are a number of similarities between the traditional Training Level test and the new Training Level Rider test. Here are some of them:

           1. You perform and are judged individually.
           2. The test is ridden in a standard or a small dressage area.
           3. Only one judge is mandatory.
           4. There is a prescribed set of movements you need to perform.
           5. Tests start and end with a halt and salute.
           6. If you have three errors you will be eliminated.
           7. The difficulty of the test resembles a Training Level test.
           8. There are many of the familiar Training Level movements, such as 20-meter circles, changes of rein, medium and free walk and a stretch circle.
           9. The halt may be performed through the walk.
         10. USEF dressage rules apply.

There are also some major differences, such as:

           1. There are no scores for the individual movements of the test.
           2. The directives are focused on the rider's position.
           3. If you make an error, you will have .5 points deducted. If you make a second error, 1.0 additional points will be deducted. (In a traditional Training Level test, 2.0 points are deducted for the first error; 4.0 points for the second.)
           4. All trot work must be rising, except a few steps (4-8) of sitting are permitted during transitions.
           5. There is a different set of collective marks - the traditional "gaits, submission and impulsion" are not noted.
           6. The collective marks are your only scores. There are five and they all have a coefficient two. The highest possible score on each collective is a 10. Therefore, the perfect test would earn you a 100.
           7. Scoring is in decimal points; for instance you might get a 7.2 on one of your collective marks. (In a tradition Training Level test, scoring is in half points: you might get a 7.0 or a 7.5.)

The collective marks and what they mean.

           1. Rider's Position. The rider's ear, shoulder, hip and heel are aligned vertically when sitting at all gaits. The trunk is slightly in front of the vertical when in rising trot. When seen from in front of behind, the rider is straight and symmetrical, with even shoulders, hips and stirrups. The rider sits in harmony with the mechanics of each gait. The hands maintain a steady, elastic contact with the horse's mouth.
           2. Rider's Correct and Effective Use of the Aids. The rider prepares for and performs the movements using subtle, tactful and effective aids. The horse is appropriately bent through the turns and on circles and is straight when moving on straight lines. The horse responds willingly, giving the impression of clear communication between rider and horse.
           3. Horse's Response and Performance. The horse's training appears to be following the principles established by the Pyramid of Training. The horse moves actively forward with a consistent tempo in each gait, and reaches confidently to the bit. The transitions are performed willingly and smoothly. The rider demonstrates the horse's clear reactivity to both lateral and longitudinal aid influence.
           4. Accuracy of the exercises. The geometry of the movements is correct in terms of their size, shape and placement in the arena. The circles and half circles are round, have the correct diameter and they originate and terminate at the correct place. The corners are performed as one quarter of a 10-meter circle.
           5. Harmony between rider and horse. Both horse and rider appear calm focused and confident. They perform competently at the level and are pleasant to watch.

The Training Level Rider test is good for riders and horses of all ages. It is appropriate for people who want more input on their position and effectiveness and less focus on their horse. I would encourage you to try a test. It is a different way to be critiqued, and I think you will find it as enjoyable to ride as a traditional test. Good luck.

This article is copyrighted and first appeared in The Aiken Horse. It is reprinted here by permission.

Monday, October 14, 2013

Secret Lives of Horses | 10/14/2013


By: Mary Jane Howell, Photography by: Gary Knoll

The dictionary defines the word "serendipity" as a gift for finding good things accidentally. Although it wasn't quite an accident that Gail Watson ended up owning a Thoroughbred mare with such a name, it is interesting that the mare changed hands a few times before finding the perfect owner at age 4 - an owner who understood her unique personality.

Serendipity started her life in Canada and was brought to New York as a show ring hunter prospect. The mare refused to do her flying changes (the first of many strong opinions) and thus found herself for sale. Gail was training with Bill McGuinness at his North Salem, New York barn at the time, and Bill was always on the lookout for prospective event horses. He saw that intangible "something" in Serendipity and at his urging Gail bought the mare. This was in the mid-1980s and it wasn't long until Bill had the mare (known as Maggie at this point) ready for her first event on Long Island.

The outcome of the trip to Long Island is lost in the haze of history, but one thing does stand out - it was then and there that Maggie fell in love with trucks and trailers. She was obviously one of those females who liked to be entertained, to be doing something, or at least thinking about doing something fun in the future.

"The sound of the truck meant action to Maggie - you get on, travel a bit, get off, and then get to go cross-country," says Gail. And she always leapt off the trailer, even when all the other horses politely stepped off. Perhaps she was doing her own warm-up for those cross-country drop jumps.

Besides Gail and Bill, Maggie was very fortunate to have Amy Struzzieri in her life. When Amy was in her teens, she started working for Bill, doing everything from grooming to driving the van to events. Now a dressage judge and trainer in Aiken, Amy became Maggie's caregiver upon the mare's retirement. When Amy moved here two and a half years ago, she brought Maggie with her.

"In the late 1980s and 90s, there was the most wonderful group of women who rode out of Bill's barn," recalls Amy. "When we shipped to an event we had the most incredible amount of fun. We stayed at beautiful bed and breakfasts, had great dinner, good wine, and the women had a blast at the event. Some women went Baby Novice, others went Training level, and if anyone fell off they had to buy Bill a case of wine!"

Maggie and Gail competed with this group throughout the Northeast, with favorite venues being Groton House in Massachusetts and Millbrook in New York. Maggie continued to be opinionated, and although she was not asked to do a flying change, she did have her reservations about the dressage test.

"She understood early on that dressage was like spinach - eat your spinach my dear child and you get to have a yummy dessert, which in her case was going cross-country," says Gail. "She would trot down the center line and halt at X and rear. It was not my fault - she was simply lodging a protest. I must say it was a very lady-like rear. She would then continue on with the rest of the test, sweet as pie. We could never break her of the habit."

While you could still count her age in the single digits, Maggie got the unglamorous nickname of Crabatha - must have been the pinned ears in the stall when her expectations were not met.

"The show barn life was basically all about spending most of the time in a stall, with a few hours of turn-out and then, of course, riding time," explains Amy. "She was definitely the queen bee of Bill's barn. Pampered -yes! Demanding - yes! If it started to rain, her groom would go running out to bring her in."

But for all her idiosyncrasies, Maggie was a balm for Gail, who was an attorney in her professional life, and who was also married to an attorney. While many professionals might escape from their New York offices and head to the Berkshires or the Hamptons for the weekend, Gail was more content to have adventures with Maggie.

"We competed at the Novice and Training Levels," says Gail. "And I'm proud to say we almost always got pinned in the top four. What I remember best about Maggie during our years together was that she loved the challenge, the change in routine, and all the different smells. I was just blessed to be along for the ride."

Maggie was bred one time and had a colt in 1997 who ended up doing the show hunter circuit in Florida. Obviously Maggie did not pass along her dislike of flying changes to her offspring.

When Maggie retired from competition a few years later, so did Gail. They were each other's yin and yang, and when it was time to stop, they stopped together. Maggie was turned over to Amy, who was overseeing several retirees in New York. Maggie had a large pasture and a friend to share it with. No more barns, although she did have a 20 X 20 stall that she could use as she pleased. Mostly it did not please her to be in, except when it rained and then Amy would only see Maggie's nose poking out the door.

Although life was good for Amy and her band of retirees, the New York winters were getting old. Amy had met Marshall and Betsy Lamb when the couple was in New York to judge the Golden's Bridge Hounds Hunter Trials, and an open invitation to visit Aiken was give.

"Like everyone else who visits here, I fell in love with the town," explains Amy. "When I moved here in 2011, what I remember most was that Maggie, after a 15-hour ride, leapt off the trailer in perfect form."

If Maggie thought she was getting to compete again after years of retirement, she had a surprise. What awaited her was a huge field and balmy weather. Instead of just one friend, she had seven and all the grass she could eat.
She also got a new nickname: Magpie.

"She's in her 30s now - although a real lady never tells her exact age," laughs Amy. "She is having an interesting life here. She is the adopted grandparent to several clutches of chicks at the Lamb's farm and she has to delegate her precious time to not one, but two boyfriends."

Her favorite food is soft bananas, which she can gum with her worn down teeth. She gets four quarts of senior feed morning and night, with the addition of electrolytes, MSM and a daily wormer. Although there is enough warm water in her grain to make it look like gruel and it takes he ages to eat, the results speak for themselves. She looks fabulous for a mare of her age.

"She definitely is still vain. She won't go back outside to 'her boys' until I've wiped the food off her face," said Amy. "She locks those knees and refuses to budge until she is cleaned up - simply amazing."

Although her black coat is now a rather unflattering shade of tan and her hearing is almost gone, she is still a princess. Visitors to her field must see and pet her first and she does everything but climb into your pocket. She would like to explain that her skin is rather delicate these days, so mind how hard you scratch those places where she itches. She loves living outside and hardly ever goes into the huge shed, even when the afternoon torrential rains hit on an almost daily basis. She probably laughs at the memory of her younger self - the demanding and pampered one!

This article is copyrighted and first appeared in The Aiken Horse. It is reprinted here by permission.

Monday, October 7, 2013

Ask An Expert | 10/7/2013

Ask An Expert | Your Questions About Horses

By: Pam Gleason

This column answers readers' questions about horses. Anything is fair game, from questions about equine health to how to get along with the other boarders at your barn, to general horse keeping.

Dear Expert,

What's the best way to treat rain rot? My horses are turned out this summer, and with the amount of rain we've been getting, they all have rain rot. One of them has it pretty bad. How do I get rid of it and can it be prevented?

                                                                                                     -Hate Rain Rot

Dear Hate Rain Rot,

Rain rot, otherwise known as rain scald, is popping up around Aiken this summer and we got quite a few questions about it. Before we get to this question, here's a quick summary of what rain rot is:
Rain rot is an infection of the out layers of the skin caused by bacteria called Dermatophilus congolensis. These bacteria are quite widespread and are assumed to be present in the soil. Dermatophilus doesn't generally give any trouble unless the weather is wet and humid, which causes the bacteria to become more active. Horses generally get infected after they have been out in the rain, which is where the descriptive, ugly name comes from. Other animals can also get rain rot, according to Merck Veterinary Manual. In sheep it is called lumpy wool disease, and in cattle it can be a serious problem, especially in Africa. It's common in crocodiles in Australia, and the books say that people can get it, though we have never heard of a human with rain rot.

When a horse is first infected, he might be covered with little bumps, usually on the back, hindquarters, neck and anywhere that rain gathers and runs off. If the infection progresses, those bumps get larger and harder, and eventually form scabs and crusts. When the scabs fall off, they take tufts of the horse's hair with them, and may have pus underneath them. Horses can have a few scabs  here and there, or they can be covered with them. In early stages, rain rot doesn't appear to cause the horse much distress, but when the scabs form, they can be quite painful. If the lesions are under the saddle area, they can make a horse unrideable, and if they are present in any significant amount, they can definitely ruin a horse's coat and overall appearance. Summer rain rot is usually not as bad or as ugly as winter rain rot, though there are exceptions.

So, that explains what rain rot is. Now, what can you do about it?

We posed this question to Dr. Tom Stinner, a veterinarian who practices at Southern Equine Service in Aiken. Dr. Stinner says that rain rot has been a problem this year because of the constant moisture.

"It isn't just the rain rot," he says. "Humidity and sweat can also keep the skin wet. Moisture, combined with dirt in the horse's coat, form a film on the skin that can act as an incubator for bacteria."

If your horse has a mild case, Dr. Stinner says that there are many topical creams and ointments you can use. "But a lot of it is just to clean it, to get the dirt off and loosen up the scabs which are protecting the bacteria. You want the scabs to come off so the areas of infection can dry out."

Dr. Stinner recommends using a mild disinfectant wash, such as Betadine or Nolvasan scrub or shampoo. After the horse is clean and dry, you can apply an over-the-counter ointment or cream to the affected areas. These do not have to be strong or heavily medicated ointments, since what you are mostly doing is helping the skin to heal, and softening any scabs that are still there.

If the horse has a severe infection, or it doesn't respond to tropical treatment, Dr. Stinner says that adding antibiotics is often necessary. "You should call your vet if the horse's skin is very sensitive, or you are treating for several days and you don't see a response, or the scabs are very widespread. The bacterium is sensitive to Penicillin or SMZs [sulfamethoxale], and sometimes we might use an immune stimulant. We would combine these medications with topical treatment."

Dr. Stinner says that if a horse has a stubborn or especially severe case, there is often an underlying cause.

"It might be a cause of poor nutrition, so that the horse's immune system is compromised. Horses with Cushings [a hormonal disorder] often will get nonresponsive rain rot because their immune system is knocked down. In those cases, treating the underlying problem is important."

Can you prevent rain rot? If you can keep a horse dry, sure. But it is not easy to keep a horse dry in the summer in Aiken. If they are not getting rained on, they are often sweating. The best way to prevent an infection from getting started is to make sure that the horse stays clean, though as Dr. Stinner remarks, bathing a horse frequently is a doubleedged sword, since you do want to keep a horse clean, but you don't want to make him wet all the time. Early treatment is the key to preserving his coat and appearance.

"In the summertime we often get calls about a horse having hives," says Dr. Stinner. "A lot of times, it turns out that it's not hives at all; it's rain rot. If you start treating the horse immediately, you can often keep a case from progressing to the stage where there are scabs and the hair falls out."

Since rain rot is so common, there are quite a lot of home remedies for it. Some of them work, some don't, and some work, but might be at the cost of your horse's comfort, well-being and general attitude. On the Internet, people swear by bathing horses in bleach solution, Pine Sol solution and ammonia solution. Others say you have to curry the horse very hard to scrape off all the scabs and then treat them with something powerful and caustic. Dr. Stinner says that these remedies might work, but are generally overkill and not recommended.

"Aggressively cleaning the skin with something strong might work, but you have to be careful. The horse's skin might be irritated and sensitive and if you put something on it that is too harsh, you may kill some of the bacteria, but you are likely to make the horse more uncomfortable and you might slow down the healing process."

Dr. Stinner says that some milder home remedies and prevention tactics might be helpful. Some that get the stamp of approval from farm owners in Aiken include rinsing a horse with a Betadine solution after a rain, or misting his coat with a Betadine spray. Many of the expensive over-the-counter remedies that work well have mineral oil as a main ingredient. Some horse owners swear that plain mineral oil or baby oil works all by itself, without the need for antibacterial agents or disinfectants.

"This could be because the oil loosens up the scabs, and then seals and protects the skin," say Dr. Stinner. The downside is that a horse with baby oil on him looks greasy, and if he has light-colored skin or has lost a significant amount of hair, the oil could accelerate a sunburn. The upside is that baby oil is inexpensive and not painful for the horse, so that grooming remains a pleasurable activity for him - more aggressive tactics often result in a horse that runs off in terror when he sees you coming with a curry comb.

So the bottom line is: keep it clean; and if those things don't work, call your vet. The bacteria that cause rain rot are not usually very difficult to kill as long as you a diligent, so always remember to treat your horse's skin like the sensitive organ that it is. Good luck!

This article is copyrighted and first appeared in The Aiken Horse. It is reprinted here by permission.